Zhongshan is known as Xiangshan, and it is named after the “land of many fairy flowers.” Ancient Xiangshan is an island that is hanging on the outer ocean of the Pearl River. The territory is the current Wugui Mountain and Fenghuang Mountain (now Zhuhai City) and the surrounding mountains and hills, that is, the land of Shijie to Macao. Since the Tang Dynasty, due to the continuous deposition of a large amount of sediment in the Pearl River, a vast alluvial plain has gradually formed. After the Song and Yuan dynasties, the land from the sea to the alluvial plain accounted for about three-thirds of the original land area. Second, people call it the Xihai 18 Shasha, which is now the township of Xiaolan, Dongsheng, Tanbei, Henglan. To the Ming Dynasty, the alluvial plain continued to expand. The land formed at this time was called the East China Sea 16 Sands, which is now the Dongfeng, Nantou, Huangpi, Laksa, Triangle, Langwang, the people, the port and other towns. In the Qing Dynasty, the southwestern plains of the Banfu, Shenwan, Sanxiang and Tanzhou areas to the south of the port and the Modaomen waterway were formed. The changes in the shoal of the sea have made the north of the sarcophagus and Shunde and the Panyu continent integrated into one part and become part of the alluvial plain of the Pearl River Delta.
After the liberation, archaeologists discovered nine Neolithic cultural sites, including Mashan and Nanlang Longxue Village in the west of Shijie, and unearthed many stoneware, painted pottery, sand pottery and other utensils, indicating that Zhongshan was 5,000 years ago. In the middle and late Neolithic era, indigenous Gu Yue people have been hunting, hunting and living on Xiangshan Island.
Xiangshan Island was the land of Baiyue Haiyu in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period. Qin Dynasty belonged to Nanhai County. The Han Dynasty belonged to Panyu County of Nanhai County. It belonged to Dongguan County and belonged to Baoan County. It was Dongguan County in the Tang Dynasty. It is located in Xiangshan Town, and the territory is now Shiqian, Shaxi, Dayong, Nanqu, Shenwan, Sanxiang, Shenwan, Shitang, Cuiheng, Wuguishan, Nanlang, Zhangjiabian and Zhuhai. The place of the mountain field, the former mountain, the Tang family, and the lower gate. In the 22nd year of Shaoxing in the Southern Song Dynasty (1152), Dongguan County magistrate Yao Xiaozi set up Xiangshan County with the suggestion of Jinshi Chen Tianjue to change the town to the county, and “cut the South China Sea, Panyu, Xinhui County, Binhai Diyi”, under Guangzhou.
At the beginning of Xiangshan County, the territory was a group of unconnected islands. Only nearly 10,000 households were the backward half-fishing and semi-agricultural economy. Several dynasties before the Southern Song Dynasty, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties were listed as inferior counties. . In the meantime, in 1553, the Portuguese entered Macao and exercised autonomy. In 1849, Xiangshan lost its right to govern Macao. During the Jiaqing and Daoguang years of the Qing Dynasty, due to the rapid and massive accumulation of Shatan, and the emphasis on rest and recuperation, and the relocation of immigrants from the Central Plains, the population of the county increased greatly, and at the same time brought advanced production technology and excellent varieties, Xiangshan County The agricultural production has developed rapidly, and it has become a fertile area of Guangdong for a time. “The household registration is very rich, and driving out of him.”
In 1911, the Revolution of 1911 broke out and won. On May 5, 1921, the National Government of the Republic of China was established in Guangzhou. Sun Yat-sen became the president, announced the beginning of the military and political period, and improved the political institutions at all levels. In Xiangshan County, the elected county magistrate was launched in the summer and autumn, and Wu Tiecheng was elected. On March 12, 1925, Sun Yat-sen died in Beijing. On April 15, Xiangshan County was renamed Zhongshan County to commemorate Sun Yat-sen. The people of Zhongshan (Xiangshan) have a glorious revolutionary tradition in the modern Chinese history. This has been fully developed in the revolutionary era of nearly half a century. It has been affected by the revolutionary spirit of the nation-state after its death and death.
On November 6-7, 1911, under the impetus of the Wuchang Uprising, the Xiangshan County Revolutionary Armed Forces, directly led by the Macao General Branch of the Southern Alliance Office of the China Alliance, entered the county town from Longdu, Liangdu and Qianshan, and occupied the county. The temporary military government of Xiangshan County, this is the Xinhai Xiangshan uprising period. In the period of Longjiguang disaster, the revolutionary party of Xiangshan County, Ren Henian and Lin Zhongshuo, launched the Longdu Uprising in 1916. There were many battles in Shijihai, Mashan and Xihe Road, and they gave Longjiguang and its Xiangshan. The agent was greatly attacked, and the descendants had a stone monument to the West Mountain to commemorate the matter.
After the “July 7 Incident” in 1937, the Japanese army invaded and occupied the Sanzhao Island in the 7th district of Zhongshan County (now Zhuhai City) in February 1938. Zhongshan entered the anti-Japanese period of the Kuomintang and the Communist Party, and under the joint resistance of the military and civilians, they successively obtained The battle of the Yokohama in 1939 and the battles of Yokohama and Zhangjiabian. After the fall of Zhongshan in 1940, the people of Zhongshan County under the leadership of the CPC Central Committee of the Nanfan Zhongshun and the Zhujiang Special Committee of the Communist Party of China, based on the Wugui Mountain, formed the Zhongshan guerrilla battalion, actively launched the anti-Japanese armed struggle against the enemy, and achieved three The battle of the township, the battle of Qi’ao Island, and the battle of defending the Wugui Mountain area. According to statistics, during the entire Anti-Japanese War period, Zhongshan’s anti-Japanese guerrillas under the direct command of the Guangdong Nanfan Zhongshun Guerrilla District Command and the Guangdong People’s Anti-Japanese Guerrilla Zhujiang Column conducted more than 140 battles with the Japanese army. Lin Xiaoyun, Liang Jia, Luo Zhangyou and others have contributed to the Liberation of Zhongshan and have been rumoured by future generations.
After the victory of the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression, the Kuomintang launched a large-scale civil war despite the desire of the people of the country to demand peace and democracy. The CPC’s special office in Zhongshan has done a lot of propaganda work for this purpose. In the second half of 1949, the party organization of Zhongshan County and the people’s armed groups of Zhongshan County expanded rapidly. For example, in mid-September, the Zhongshan People’s Liberation Army’s Guangdong-Xiangbian-side column, the Zhongshan Independent Group (“Zhongshan Independent Group”), was established in Changjiang Township, Zhongshan County. Wait, well prepared for the liberation of Zhongshan County.
On October 30, 1949, the local people’s armed forces in Zhongshan and the Wuguishan bases in front of the local people and the Chinese People’s Liberation Army’s two leading columns in the victory of the stone squad were held for the Liberation Day of Zhongshan. On August 4, 1950, the whole territory of Zhongshan was liberated.
The ancient Zhongshan (Xiangshan) can be said to be obscure in the history of Chinese social development. Both the economy and culture are in a relatively lagging position throughout the Pearl River Delta region. This situation continued until the Qing Emperor Kangxi period. In the twenty-third year of Qing Emperor Kangxi (1684), Guangdong announced that the “relocation” order was abolished. Since then, the socio-economic culture of Zhongshan has entered a period of rapid development. By the time of the Republic of China, Zhongshan has become a large county known as the “land of fish and rice”. The local fiscal revenue was rich and was determined by the National Government as a national model county in 1929. It was also identified as a provincial model county by the Guangdong Provincial Government in 1948 and has always played an important role in the country.
After the liberation, Zhongshan County has experienced rapid development and changes. In April 1950, it was listed as a special county by the Guangdong Provincial Civil Affairs Department. Since then, although Zhongshan has been gradually divided into Zhuhai County, Doumen County (most of them) and some places are classified as Panyu, Shunde, Xinhui and other counties, but the main economic indicators are still in the forefront of more than 100 counties in the province. In 1982, Zhongshan County was listed as one of the rich counties in the country by the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Husbands and Fisheries; in December 1983, Zhongshan was allowed to withdraw from the county and changed its market. In January 1988, it was upgraded to a prefecture-level city and entered the urban economic development process. Significant achievements have been made by the National Bureau of Statistics in 1989 as one of the first cities in China to enter the well-off level.
The name of Zhongshan Renjie has a long history. During the Jiajing period of the Ming Dynasty, there were 16 scholars and more than 180 people in the county. The representative had more than 460 volumes and majored in the Ming Dynasty. Huang Zuo, editor-in-chief of Zhi, and He Wuwei, the first assistant of the Nanming Tang Dynasty. In modern times, Xiangshan is a talented person and a group of stars. Due to the special geographical proximity of Hong Kong and Macao and the many ethnic conditions of overseas Chinese, Xiangshan has taken the footsteps of the Xiangshan people to the world and has narrowed the distance between the Xiangshan people and the world. The level of civilization has opened up the modern thinking of Xiangshan people to meet the world trend, gestating the trend of democratic revolution, and has produced a group of people who have had a major influence on the democratic revolution in modern China. Xiangshan people have long opposed the feudal rule, opposed the imperialist aggression, opposed the bureaucratic capitalist rule, formed a glorious and excellent revolutionary tradition, and wrote a glorious chapter in modern and contemporary history with a spirit of courage to be the first in the world.
Rong Hong, China’s first bachelor and doctoral graduate from a foreign higher education institution, China’s first bourgeois intellectual; Zheng Guanying, the most prestigious of China’s early bourgeois reformists, whose “Sheng Shi Wei Yan” was later Kang Youwei played a leading role in the “Hundred Days Reform” led by Kang Youwei. The bourgeois-democratic revolution led by Sun Yat-sen, the forerunner of the great democratic revolution born in Cuiheng Village, has a closer relationship with Xiangshan and Xiangshan people. He is the initiator, leader and organization of the revolutionary movement that changes the historical destiny of Chinese society. Xiangshan Tongxiang has always been a supporter and participant in his career, and Cheng Kuiguang, Cheng Yaozhen and Lu Yidong have all sacrificed for the revolution. It can be said that in modern China, the Xiangshan people represented by Sun Yat-sen took the lead in raising the banner of the democratic revolution and took the lead in advocating a revolutionary way to overthrow the feudal autocratic rule of more than two thousand years and establish an independent, free and equal democratic republic. Xiangshan also appeared as “Father of the Chinese Air Force” Yang Xianyi (Beitai) and China’s first female pilot Zhu Mufei (Xiqiren). Xiangshan County is thus known as “the hometown of aviation.”
In the new-democratic revolution under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, Yang Paoan, the first propagandist of Marxism in southern China, Su Zhaozheng, leader of the provincial and Hong Kong military strikes, alternate member of the Standing Committee of the Sixth Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China, and Yang Yin, the military minister of the CPC Central Committee, etc. The outstanding children of Zhongshan, such as Lin Weimin, Li Huazhao, and Li Yanmeng, have given precious lives to the revolution. In the struggle against Japanese imperialism, Zhongshan has emerged as the first detachment of the Pearl River column and other heroic fighting groups and heroic fighters. Under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, it opened up the anti-Japanese base areas in the Wugui Mountain area, worked hard and achieved the anti-Japanese guerrillas of the enemy behind the enemy. The brilliant victory of the war.
During the War of Liberation, the first detachment of the Pearl River column adhered to Wuguishan and carried out an indomitable heroic struggle with the Kuomintang reactionaries, which finally ushered in the liberation of Zhongshan. In modern times, Xiangshan people have made great contributions to the modernization of China in the spirit of unity, patriotism, and pragmatism and innovation. Rong Rong is known as one of the pioneers of China’s modernization. Tang Tingshu, Xu Run, Zheng Guanying, etc., directly participated in the series of “self-improvement” and “seeking for wealth” activities of the Westernization Movement, and left behind in the establishment of industry. A lot of pioneering efforts. The founders of the four largest department stores in China’s modern and modern times, the first founders of Xianshi, Yong’an, Xinxin and Daxin, Ma Yingxi, Guo Le, Guo Quan, Liu Xiji, Li Minzhou, Cai Chang and Cai Xing are all Xiangshan people.
Zhongshan people have made important achievements in China’s modern education and culture. Zhong Rongguang founded Lingnan University. Su Manshu is unique in literature and art. Yan Lingyu is famous in film performances. Xiao Youmei is known as the pioneer of modern Chinese music education. Lu Wencheng has become the premier composer and singer of Guangdong music. Reformers, etc., all occupy an important position in the history of modern Chinese culture. From a certain point of view, the Xiangshan celebrities of these educational and cultural undertakings have also promoted the development of Xiangshan culture to a certain extent, bringing the heyday of Xiangshan’s style of study, from early childhood education, higher education to vocational education, military education, etc. The thriving and gratifying scene adds to the image of Xiangshan (Zhongshan)’s model county.
The sages and philosophers of Zhongshan have made their own contributions to the Chinese civilization. The mission of history has inspired us to contribute to the new development of Zhongshan by inheriting the historical and cultural essence of Zhongshan and the spirit of “Dare to be the first” of Zhongshan people.