Geography location and scope

Zhongshan City is located in the south-central part of Guangdong Province, south of the central part of the Pearl River Delta in the west and north of the river, north of Panyu District of Guangzhou and Shunde District of Fushan City, west of Jiangmen City, Xinhui District and Doumen District of Zhuhai City. Zhuhai City, across the Pearl River Estuary, faces the Shenzhen and Hong Kong Special Administrative Regions.

The whole territory is located between 22°11′~22°47′ north latitude and 113°09′~113°46′ east longitude. The administrative jurisdiction covers an area of 1800.14 square kilometres. From the city centre main road is 86 kilometres north of Guangzhou, 65 kilometres southeast to Macau, and 52 nautical miles from Zhongshan Port Waterway. The municipal government is located at No. 1 Songyuan Road, East District.

Geological Features

Zhongshan has a long history of geological development and frequent crustal changes. The geological tectonic system belongs to the Yuezhong depression of the South China fold bundle, and Zhongshan is located in the northern section.

The terrain is dominated by plains, high in the middle, and the surrounding areas are flat. The plains are inclined from the northwest to the southeast. The mountains of Wugui Mountain and Zhuqiling are in the south-central part of the city. The main peak of Wugui Mountain is 531 meters above sea level, which is the highest peak in the city.

The landform consists of low mountains, hills, terraces and alluvial plains and beaches of the Pearl River Estuary. Among them, low mountains, hills and terraces account for 24% of the total area, generally 10 to 200 meters above sea level, and the soil type is red soil. Plains and tidal flats account for 68% of the total area, and the general elevation is -0.5 to 1 meter. The plain soil types are paddy soil and base water. The beaches are widely distributed with coastal saline marsh soil and coastal sand. The river area accounts for 8% of the whole territory. The Xishuidao and Modaomen waterways in the lower reaches of the Xijiang River flow from the north to the south through the western boundary of the city, and the South Sea is from the Modaomen. The Hongqili waterway in the lower reaches of the Beijiang River passes through the northeast border of the city. Hongqimen exits the Pearl River Estuary. In the meantime, the ramps are criss-crossed, among which the Xiaolan Waterway and the Jilu Waterway traverse the northern part of the city, and the Hengmen Channel is connected to the Pearl River Estuary by Hengmen. The water system is divided into two parts: the plain river network and the low mountain hill network. The river network in the plain area is deeply affected by the tides of the South China Sea and has the characteristics of a typical estuary area.

Climatic characteristics

Zhongshan City is located in a low latitude area. It is located in the south of the Tropic of Cancer. It is a subtropical monsoon climate with abundant light and heat, abundant rainfall and abundant solar radiation energy. The total amount of radiation was the highest in July, reaching 5,1141.3 joules per square centimetre; the least in February, only 2,3285.7 joules per square centimetre. The average annual sunshine hours is 1843.4 hours, accounting for 42% of the annual sunshine hours; the maximum annual sunshine hours is 2392.6 hours (1955), accounting for 54% of the annual sunshine hours; the annual minimum sunshine hours is 1448.2 hours. (1994), accounting for 33% of the annual number of hours. The annual average temperature is 22.0 °C. The monthly average temperature is the lowest in January, at 13.6 °C; the highest in July, reaching 28.5 °C. The extreme maximum temperature is 38.7 ° C (July 18 and 19, 2005), and the extreme minimum temperature is -1.3 ° C (January 12, 1955). On the verge of the South China Sea, the summer monsoon brings a lot of water vapour, which is the main source of precipitation. The annual average precipitation is 1791.3 mm. The catastrophic weather affecting the city is typhoon, heavy rain, low temperature, frost, low temperature and rain, drought and thunderstorm.

Natural resources

There are five main types of natural resources in Zhongshan:

  • Solar energy resources
    • The average annual total solar radiation amounted to 44,5155.4 joules per square centimetre, which is one of the regions with abundant solar radiation resources in the province.
  •  Water resources
    • Zhongshan is a Fengshui area with an annual rainfall of 1,738 mm and a total precipitation of 2.918 billion cubic meters. The total water volume of the Xijiang River and the Beijiang River flowing through the city’s Modaomen, Hengmen and Hongqili are 149.7 billion cubic meters. It reached 125,700 cubic meters. In addition, Zhongshan City is located in the coastal area and can use the tidal range for irrigation and drainage.
  • Mineral resources
    • Zhongshan has a long history of geological development, frequent crust changes, but the distribution of strata is relatively simple, and the rich ore-rich strata are lacking. The minerals that have been discovered and exploited are only granite stone, sand and refractory clay. The stones are mainly biotite granite, biotite monzonitic granite and granodiorite, which are widely distributed in the low mountains, hills and terraces of the city. The reserves are most abundant in Wugui Mountain and Zhuqiling; the sand is medium coarse quartz. Sand-based, mainly distributed in the coastal areas of the city’s eastern Longxue and Xiasha; refractory clay is mainly distributed near the Shantou Village in the Torch Development Zone.
  • Animal and plant resources
    • The main activities of large and medium-sized mammals in Zhongshan are distributed in the hilly hills of Wugui Mountain and the hilly areas of Baishui Linshan. The existing economic animals are mainly small civet, crab-eating, leopard cat, southern fox, pangolin, fang rat and various birds. Snakes, etc.; plain areas are mainly reptiles, amphibians, birds and rodents; aquatic animals include fish, crustaceans and a variety of shellfish. The vegetation representative type is the tropical monsoon forest type evergreen monsoon forest. There are more than 610 species of plants, belonging to 105 families and 358 genera, and the forest coverage rate is 12.95%.
  • Travel Resources
    • The celebrities of Zhongshan City, the Wugui Mountain Range and the water features of the southern part of the Pearl River Delta form a colourful cultural and natural landscape. The main tourist attractions in the city include: Cuiheng Sun Yat-Sen Former Residence, Zhongshan Film Studio, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall, Zhongshan Memorial Middle School, Sun Wen Memorial Park, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall, Wugui Mountain Xiaoyao Valley, Cuizhuyuan Drifting Paradise and Revolutionary Historical Base, Zimaling Park Zhongshan Hot Spring, Changjiang Reservoir Tourist Area, Sunwen West Road Pedestrian Street, Hengmen Sea Manor, Sanxiang Quanlin Tourism Villa, People’s Lingnan Water Town, Fengben Agricultural Science and Technology Park, Dayong Zhuoqi Mountain Park and Yandun Mountain Ancient Tower, Xishan Zen Temple, Nanshan Antique Forest, Song Dynasty Relics, Luo Sanmei Mountain, Qiaotou Small Ring and so on. The main products are March red lychee, Shenwan pineapple, Xiaolan chrysanthemum meat, Zhongshan almond cake, stone carp pigeon, Yangtze River crispy meat glutinous rice, rose flower product, Sanxiang glutinous rice powder, and yellow scorpion sausage.
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