Zhong Shan Physical Geography

Geography location and scope

Zhongshan City is located in the south-central part of Guangdong Province, south of the central part of the Pearl River Delta in the west and north of the river, north of Panyu District of Guangzhou and Shunde District of Fushan City, west of Jiangmen City, Xinhui District and Doumen District of Zhuhai City. Zhuhai City, across the Pearl River Estuary, faces the Shenzhen and Hong Kong Special Administrative Regions.

The whole territory is located between 22°11′~22°47′ north latitude and 113°09′~113°46′ east longitude. The administrative jurisdiction covers an area of 1800.14 square kilometres. From the city centre main road is 86 kilometres north of Guangzhou, 65 kilometres southeast to Macau, and 52 nautical miles from Zhongshan Port Waterway. The municipal government is located at No. 1 Songyuan Road, East District.

Geological Features

Zhongshan has a long history of geological development and frequent crustal changes. The geological tectonic system belongs to the Yuezhong depression of the South China fold bundle, and Zhongshan is located in the northern section.

The terrain is dominated by plains, high in the middle, and the surrounding areas are flat. The plains are inclined from the northwest to the southeast. The mountains of Wugui Mountain and Zhuqiling are in the south-central part of the city. The main peak of Wugui Mountain is 531 meters above sea level, which is the highest peak in the city.

The landform consists of low mountains, hills, terraces and alluvial plains and beaches of the Pearl River Estuary. Among them, low mountains, hills and terraces account for 24% of the total area, generally 10 to 200 meters above sea level, and the soil type is red soil. Plains and tidal flats account for 68% of the total area, and the general elevation is -0.5 to 1 meter. The plain soil types are paddy soil and base water. The beaches are widely distributed with coastal saline marsh soil and coastal sand. The river area accounts for 8% of the whole territory. The Xishuidao and Modaomen waterways in the lower reaches of the Xijiang River flow from the north to the south through the western boundary of the city, and the South Sea is from the Modaomen. The Hongqili waterway in the lower reaches of the Beijiang River passes through the northeast border of the city. Hongqimen exits the Pearl River Estuary. In the meantime, the ramps are criss-crossed, among which the Xiaolan Waterway and the Jilu Waterway traverse the northern part of the city, and the Hengmen Channel is connected to the Pearl River Estuary by Hengmen. The water system is divided into two parts: the plain river network and the low mountain hill network. The river network in the plain area is deeply affected by the tides of the South China Sea and has the characteristics of a typical estuary area.

Climatic characteristics

Zhongshan City is located in a low latitude area. It is located in the south of the Tropic of Cancer. It is a subtropical monsoon climate with abundant light and heat, abundant rainfall and abundant solar radiation energy. The total amount of radiation was the highest in July, reaching 5,1141.3 joules per square centimetre; the least in February, only 2,3285.7 joules per square centimetre. The average annual sunshine hours is 1843.4 hours, accounting for 42% of the annual sunshine hours; the maximum annual sunshine hours is 2392.6 hours (1955), accounting for 54% of the annual sunshine hours; the annual minimum sunshine hours is 1448.2 hours. (1994), accounting for 33% of the annual number of hours. The annual average temperature is 22.0 °C. The monthly average temperature is the lowest in January, at 13.6 °C; the highest in July, reaching 28.5 °C. The extreme maximum temperature is 38.7 ° C (July 18 and 19, 2005), and the extreme minimum temperature is -1.3 ° C (January 12, 1955). On the verge of the South China Sea, the summer monsoon brings a lot of water vapour, which is the main source of precipitation. The annual average precipitation is 1791.3 mm. The catastrophic weather affecting the city is typhoon, heavy rain, low temperature, frost, low temperature and rain, drought and thunderstorm.

Natural resources

There are five main types of natural resources in Zhongshan: